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Facebook And Self Esteem Research
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Instagram Body Image Issues & Eating Disorders
Associations between others’ approval, Facebook appearance comparison, and adolescent girls’ body esteem: Interactions: A cross-cultural study
Michael Preller Michael Preller Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Jounghwa Choi Jounghwa Choi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, * and Hye Eun Lee Hye Eun Lee Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3
Received: December 7, 2020 / Revised: January 10, 2021 / Accepted: January 18, 2021 / Published: January 21, 2021
Implications Of Facebook Engagement Types And Feed’s Social Content For Self Esteem Via Social Comparison Processes
The present study examined the relationship between appearance-related social comparison in SNS and body esteem in a cross-cultural context (three European countries, i.e., Austria, Belgium, and Spain, versus one Asian country, i.e., South Korea). The role of self-esteem in the approval of others has been considered a psychological and cultural factor. Adolescent responses were analyzed using a large-scale national survey of middle-aged and older adolescents in 2017 (n = 981). The results generally support those of previous studies, but also point to cultural differences. Appearance comparisons on Facebook negatively affected girls’ body esteem in all European countries, but not in South Korea. Self-esteem based on others’ approval had a negative impact on girls’ body esteem in the four countries. Finally, a positive relationship between others’ approval and appearance comparison on Facebook was found in all European countries, but not among Korean girls. These findings highlight the importance of self-evaluations in the endorsement of others, and cultural contexts can be used to study the effects of SNS use related to body image.
How teenage girls feel about their bodies is an important source of their psychological and emotional well-being . Several studies have reported that young women have more negative body image than young men . Although exposure to idealized body images in the media has been identified as a major cause of body image disturbances among adolescent girls, social networking sites (SNS) are gaining increasing academic attention as they become the primary media source for adolescents. All over the world [4, 5].
Perloff argued that SNS use may harm girls’ body image because SNS may provide a greater opportunity for negative social comparison than traditional media . It is known that people tend to present themselves in overly positive ways on SNS, and thus self-presentations on SNS are questionable [8, 9]. As a result, it may be easy to compare the image of the upper body on social media . Because women are more susceptible to social comparison than men, negative body image comparisons on social media sites would be expected to have a particularly negative impact on adolescent girls.
Authentic Self Expression On Social Media Is Associated With Greater Subjective Well Being
Several studies have shown that social media use – in particular, appearance-focused use, posting or viewing photographs – contributes to body image-related outcomes, such as internalization of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction in women [12, 13]. However, few studies have explored the psychological factors that drive body image-related SNS behavior. Understanding these psychological factors is important because it can inform the design of body image intervention and social media literacy programs. Furthermore, because the majority of previous research has been conducted in Western cultures, cross-cultural studies will be needed to fully understand the role of SNSs in body image disturbances in girls. Although some effects of SNSs may be universal, the roles that SNSs play and how people use SNSs in different societies may differ across cultures [14, 15]. These cultural differences may in turn influence girls’ use of social media sites and subsequent outcomes.
To address this issue, the current study investigates how appearance-related social comparison on SNSs is associated with body esteem in a cross-cultural context (three European countries, i.e., Austria, Belgium, and Spain, versus one Asian country, i.e., the South). ). Korea). In making this comparison, we consider the role of self-esteem in preference for others as a psychological factor potentially driving girls’ social comparison behavior on social networking sites. Self-esteem for the benefit of others, one area of self-esteem conditioning , is expected to be culturally sensitive. Based on Markus and Kitayama, , among Koreans who have more independent self-constructive behavior compared to Europeans, the conditions of others’ self-esteem may play a more important role because the opinions of others are integral to the formation of a community. person. self conscious. Although many studies have investigated the relationship between appearance comparison and self-esteem, this relationship has rarely been examined in the context of social media use.
By examining the relationship between appearance comparisons on SNSs in a cross-cultural context and self-esteem and others’ approval of body esteem among adolescent girls, this study aims to provide further practical implications for body image intervention programs for girls. Generalizable findings about the role of social media among adolescent girls across cultures.
Relationship Of Fb And Se
Over the past several decades, many studies have been conducted on the effects of media on body image. These studies recognize the importance of the media in presenting unrealistic images of female beauty . Several correlational and experimental studies have found positive associations between media exposure and negative body image and related outcomes [19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25].
In the past few years, SNSs have received increasing academic attention from body image researchers [12, 26]. Social networking services refer to a group of Internet-based applications that “allow people to express themselves, learn about their social networks, and establish or maintain relationships with others”  (p. 1143). Due to certain characteristics, SNS have important implications for body image. In social networking services, users can create and publish their own content in a rich way, and self-discovery plays an important role in this process. Users tend to present themselves in an overly positive light on SNSs, and as peer media, SNSs provide easy and frequent access to interesting peers . Because adolescent girls are highly sensitive to comparisons with peers, and upward comparisons with attractive peers (compared to advertising models) may lead to negative self-esteem , such exposure to SNS may lead to body dissatisfaction.
Some empirical studies on SNSs support this hypothesis, showing that general use of SNSs has a positive association with various body image-related outcomes, such as appearance comparison, internalization of the thin ideal in women, and body dissatisfaction . However, other studies have found that extensive SNS use is not associated with body dissatisfaction and related outcomes [30, 31, 32, 33]. On the contrary, it was found when users engaged in using social media sites were focused on appearance, such as posting or viewing photos [34, 35]. These findings suggest that appearance-focused use of SNSs, rather than use of SNSs, is a stronger and more important predictor of body dissatisfaction and related outcomes.
Social Media Can Boost Self Esteem In Young People, Experts Suggest
As a variable capturing appearance-oriented SNS use, we focused on appearance-related social comparison behavior on SNS. Although there is a natural impulse to compare individuals with others for self-esteem purposes, appearance comparison has negative consequences for women in terms of body image and eating disorders [37, 38]. A study of male and female Canadian high school students found that frequent media exposure was a better predictor of body image problems than exposure to thin idealized media . Because SNS may provide greater opportunity for social comparison than traditional media by allowing interpersonal comparisons, these negative effects of social comparison may be more pronounced on SNS.
Many previous studies have shown that appearing on social media affects body esteem. For example, Cohen and Blaszczynski  showed that appearance comparisons on Facebook (but not in traditional media) led to body dissatisfaction in Australian female students.
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