Optical Vs. Darkfield Mice: Sensor Technology And Precision On Various Surfaces. – An optical mouse is a computer mouse that uses a light source, usually a light-emitting diode (LED), and a light detector, such as an array of photodiodes, to detect movement relative to a surface. Variants of the optical mouse have largely replaced the older design of the mechanical mouse, which uses moving parts for movement.
The earliest optical mice detected motion on pre-printed surfaces of mouse pads. Modern optical mice work on most opaque, diffusely reflective surfaces such as paper, but most do not work properly on reflective surfaces such as polished stone or transparent surfaces such as glass. Optical mice that use dark field illumination can work reliably on such surfaces.
Optical Vs. Darkfield Mice: Sensor Technology And Precision On Various Surfaces.
Although not commonly called optical mice, almost all mechanical mice track movement using LEDs and photodiodes to detect which beams of infrared light do and do not pass through holes in a pair of incremental rotary encoder wheels (one for left/right, one for forward /back).Rubber ball drive. So the primary difference of “optical mice” is not their use of optics, but the complete lack of moving parts to track mouse movements, instead of using a boring solid-state system.
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An early Xerox optical mouse chip, before Williams and Cherry developed the reverse package design
First demonstrated by two independent inventors in December 1980, the first two optical mice had different basic designs:
Used an infrared LED and a four-quadrant infrared ssor to detect grid lines printed with infrared-absorbing ink on a special metal surface. Predictive algorithms in the mouse’s CPU calculate speed and direction over a network. Another type, invented by Richard F. Lyon of Xerox, used a 16-pixel visible light image sensor with integrated motion detection on the same n-type (5 µm) MOS IC chip,
Closeup A Green Die Inside Integrated Circuit Of Optical Computer Mouse. Electronic Photodiode Array Or Gold Wires On Blue Pcb Detail Of Optoelectronic Darkfield Laser Image Sensor Stock Photo, Picture And Royalty
And observed the movement of bright dots in a dark field of printed paper or similar mouse pad.
The Kirsch and Lyon mouse types behaved very differently, as the Kirsch mouse used an x-y coordinate system built into the base and would not function properly when the base was rotated, while the Lyon mouse used the x-y coordinate system of the mouse body, like a mechanical mouse.
The optical mouse eventually sold with the Xerox STAR office computer used the reverse ssor chip approach pioneered by Lisa M. Williams and Robert S. Cherry of Xerox Microelectronics Cter.
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Modern surface-independent optical mice work by using an optoelectronic sensor (essentially a small, low-resolution video camera) to capture successive images of the surface on which the mouse is operating. As computing power became cheaper, more powerful chips for special image processing could be built into the mouse itself. This advance allowed the mouse to detect relative motion on a wide variety of surfaces, convert mouse movement to cursor movement, and eliminate the need for a separate mouse pad. In 1988, Steph B. Jackson of Xerox designed an optical mouse with surface-independent coherent light.
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However, Xerox’s inventions were never widely used commercially, and optical mice remained elusive in the PC market until Microsoft released the IntelliMouse in 1999 with the IntelliEye and IntelliMouse Explorer.
These mice used technology developed by Hewlett-Packard under its subsidiary Agilt Technologies (see below). These mice worked on almost any surface and were a welcome improvement over mechanical mice that collected dirt, erratic movement, required rough handling, and required frequent disassembly and cleaning. Other manufacturers soon followed Microsoft’s lead, including Apple for its Pro Mouse,
Using components made by Agilt (when they split from HP) and over the next few years mechanical mice became obsolete.
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The technology behind the modern optical computer mouse is known as digital image correlation, a technology pioneered by the defense industry for tracking military targets. A simple binary version of digital image correlation was used in the 1980 Lyon optical mouse. Optical mice use images to display the natural texture in materials such as wood, cloth, mouse pads and Formica. Illuminated at an emission angle by a light-emitting diode, these surfaces cast clear shadows reminiscent of hilly terrain illuminated at sunset. Images of these surfaces are captured in a continuous sequence and compared to each other to determine how far the mouse has moved.
To understand how optical flow is used in optical mice, imagine two photos of the same object, except slightly offset from each other. Place both photos on the exposure table so that they are transparent and move one at a time until their images line up. The amount by which the edges of one photo extend beyond the next represents the offset between the images and, in the case of an optical computer mouse, the distance it has moved.
Optical mice record a thousand consecutive frames or more per second. Depending on the speed of the mouse movement, each image will be offset from the previous one by a fraction of a pixel or up to several pixels. Optical mice mathematically process these images using cross-correlation to calculate how much each subsequent image is offset from the previous one.
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Coordinates. Some optical integrated circuits also allow image data acquisition. Mice usually contain some kind of image acquisition system and DSP processors for fast data processing.
An optical mouse can use ssor images with a monochrome pixel array of 18 × 18 pixels. Its ssor would normally share the same ASIC as the one used for image storage and processing. One improvement would be to speed up the correlation process by using information from previous motions, and another would be to prevent the slow dead zone by adding interpolation or frame skipping.
The development of the modern optical mouse at Hewlett-Packard Co. was supported by a series of related projects during the 1990s at HP Laboratories. In 1992, William Holland was awarded US Patt 5,089,712 and John Ertel, William Holland, Kt Vinct, Rueiming Jamp and Richard Baldwin were awarded US Patt 5,149,980 for measuring linear paper displacement in a printer by correlating paper fiber images. Ross R. All, David Beard, Mark T. Smith, and Barclay J. Tullis were awarded US Patts 5,578,813 (1996) and 5,644,139 (1997) for the principles of 2-dimensional optical navigation (ie, position measurement) based on the detection and correlation of microscopic, inherent properties of the surface traveled by the ssor navigation and using the position measurements of each d linear (document) ssor image to reconstruct the document image. This is the manual scanning concept used in the HP CapShare 920 handheld scanner. Describing an optical device that explicitly overcame the limitations of the wheels, balls, and rollers used in current computer mice, the optical mouse was expected. These patents were the basis for US Patt 5,729,008 (1998) to Travis N. Blalock, Richard A. Baumgartner, Thomas Hornak, Mark T. Smith and Barclay J. Tullis, where surface features form an image, image processing and image correlation is realized by an integrated circuit for creating positional measurement mt. The improved precision of 2D optical navigation, required for the application of optical navigation to accurately measure the displacement of 2D media (paper) in HP DesignJet large format printers, was further improved in US Patent 6,195,475 issued in 2001 to Raymond G. Beausoleil, Jr. and Ross R. All.
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While image reconstruction in a document scanning application (All et al.) required resolutions on the order of 1/600 inch with optical navigators, the implementation of optical position measurement on computer mice has not only benefited from reducing the cost of lower resolution navigation, but also enjoying the benefits binding visual feedback to the user of the cursor position on the computer screen. 2002 Gary Gordon, Derek Knee, Rajeev Badyal and Jason Hartlove won US Patt 6,433,780
For an optical computer mouse that measured position using image correlation. Some small trackpads (such as those on Blackberry smartphones) function as an optical mouse.
Optical mice often used light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination, which were first popularized. The color of an LED optical mouse can vary, but the most common is red because red LEDs are cheap and silicon photodetectors are very sensitive to red light. IR LEDs are also widely used.
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Although invisible to the naked eye, the light produced by this laser mouse is captured as a violet color because CCDs are sensitive to a wider range of light wavelengths than the human eye.
A laser mouse uses an infrared laser diode instead of an LED to illuminate the surface above its mouse. As early as 1998, Sun Microsystems shipped a laser mouse with its Sun SPARCstation
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