Power Supply Efficiency And Efficiency At Different Loads: Optimizing Efficiency. – The energy efficiency of external power supplies (EPS), and preventing excessive electricity consumption, has long been an issue of international concern, and with good reason. In the early 90s, EPS that mainly used linear technology had efficiencies sometimes as low as 50%, and drew unwanted power even at no load. Calculations at the time showed that unless these issues were addressed, within 20 years, EPS would account for 30% of total energy use.
Since then, voluntary and then mandatory regulations have evolved to ensure high average energy efficiency of external power supplies. These initiatives address both operational energy efficiency and no-load power drain. Although this regulatory development has achieved real reductions in global electricity consumption, its relatively explosive expansion has also created challenges for electricity supply and OEM manufacturers as they try to keep pace. of change.
Power Supply Efficiency And Efficiency At Different Loads: Optimizing Efficiency.
This guide describes the current state of international law, and how it translates into the specifications that external power supplies must meet. It provides examples of new power supplies that comply with the latest efficiency standards, as well as several case studies that show how high efficiency EPS are being designed today in a wide variety of industries and application.
Consider A Power Supply With Fixed Emf Varepsilon And Internal Resistance R Causing Current In A Load Resistance R. In This Problem, R Is Fixed And R Is A Variable. The Efficiency
The first mandatory standards related to the energy efficiency of external power supplies and no-load power draw were implemented in 2004 by the California Energy Commission (CEC) to address the efficiency of electricity use in its local grid. Since then, various organizations around the world have continued to develop standards to further tighten regulation and improve electricity efficiency. In 2007, the US Congress passed the Energy Independent Security Act (EISA) to harmonize electricity standards across the US, known as Level IV. EISA Level V came out in 2011, then the US Department of Energy (DoE) published its more stringent Level VI standards in 2014. It became mandatory in the US on February 10, 2016.
The European Union implemented the ERP (Energy Related Products) Eco-Design Directive 2009/125/EC in 2009, with plans to harmonize CEC and EISA in April 2011. The directive is now in Phase 2, which applies to any products which was placed on the market. After 27 April 2011; Stage 2 conforms to EISA Level V. It is expected to be upgraded to Phase 3 to meet US levels in 2017. Natural Resources Canada has implemented a Tier 1 standard equivalent to EISA Level IV. In 2006, Australia implemented a Minimum Performance Energy Standard (MEPS) equivalent to Level III; They upgraded it in 2008 to include a voluntary high skill category equivalent to Level IV.
While the United States is currently the only government enforcing compliance with the Level VI standard, most external power supply manufacturers outside the US are also working to meet these requirements. Level VI compliance elevates a product to a universal power supply platform guaranteed to meet or exceed the requirements of any governing body worldwide – for any OEM committed to shipping their products worldwide. An important requirement for.
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Power supply manufacturers indicate compliance by placing Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V or VI) on power supply labels defined by the International Efficiency Marking Protocol for External Power Supplies version 3.0, updated September 2013.
Figure 1 below shows the older versions that yielded Level VI. It is important to appreciate these earlier standards, particularly Level V, as they provide the platform on which Level VI is built.
Figure 1: Table showing performance ranges for Levels I-V. The term “power” means the power specified on the power supply label.
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Compared to Level V, the Level VI standard tightens the performance limits not only for the adapter in active mode, but also in no-load conditions. Additionally, it expands the range of covered products, so regulated products now include:
Direct vs. indirect operation: Level VI classifies power supplies as direct operation or indirect operation products. A direct operation product is an external power supply (EPS) that operates its final product without battery assistance. An indirect operation EPS is not a battery charger, but the end product cannot be operated without battery assistance. The new standard applies only to direct operation of external power supplies. Indirect operating models will still be governed by the limitations defined by EISA2007.
Level VI Exemptions: The Level VI mandate specifies exemptions for EPS products. The direct operations of the EPS standards do not apply to:
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Level VI and Legacy Products: Compliance eligibility is based on date of manufacture within the United States, or date of import into the country. Accordingly, older products may still be shipped, if the US manufacturing or import date is before February 10, 2016.
The stringency of Level VI compared to Level V means significant changes in adapter design and challenges for power supply manufacturers, while allowing OEMs to maintain a green image, reduce power consumption, and maintain access to their global markets. Products are required. Fortunately, Level VI compliant products are now available, as demonstrated by the two recently announced Mean Well Green adapter series described below.
These three new series complement the existing GST40A/60A/90A/120A (40 – 120 W) line, introducing a whole new generation green power adapter family from 12 to 280 W. Each member of the family is completely which complies with EISA 2007/DOE. Level VI Energy Efficiency Regulations.
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The GST18/25/36 series includes two types – desktop (A/B) and wall mounted (E/U), while the GST160A/220A/280A series offers 160/220/280 W and high-power adapter for Meets OEM demands. ,
Both the efficiency and no-load power consumption of these new series are better than previous Level V-compatible versions that have been available for many years. The products are suitable for consumer electronics and telecommunications equipment, office, commercial and industrial equipment and all types of equipment or systems that need to comply with the latest energy-related regulations.
The new products accept 85 – 264 VAC (127-370Vdc) inputs, with very low no-load power consumption of less than 0.15 W. (GST/18/25/36 < 0.075 W, GST280A <0.5 W). Full compliance includes NRCN, AU/NZ MEPS, EU ERP and COC version 5 as well as EISA 2007/DOE Level VI. Other approvals include UL/CUL/TUV/BSMI/CCC/PSE/CB/FCC/CE/BIS and pass LPS.
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A 94V-0 flame retardant plastic case, with free air convection cooling, allows a ——30°C to +70°C operating temperature range. Short circuit, over voltage and overload (over temperature in some models) protections, as well as a power on LED indicator.
SunPower delivers a new generation of high-efficiency power products in a wide variety of applications. These adapters provide significant marketing benefits to their OEM users because, in addition to their energy efficiency credentials, SunPower customizes them in a variety of ways to meet specific application conditions; Saving space, cost or time in the market.
In a pro broadcast application, for example, a high-reliability, cost-effective power adapter in a small footprint features an optimized DC connector and EMC compliant performance while meeting DOE Level VI efficiency standards. An ePOS/mPOS application equally benefits from an optimized power adapter that complies with energy efficiency guidelines while still providing a high current output at 5 V.
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Other applications include computer peripheral switches for commercial and 3D printers, stages, screens, photography and lighting, and banking applications. Products have been modified to provide custom output connectors and pin assignments, support for continuously varying resistive and capacitive loads, high reliability, EMC compliant performance, high operating temperature ranges and small that form factor.
Increasingly strict and mandatory energy efficiency regulations pose significant challenges for power supply manufacturers and OEMs. However, they are necessary and effective in eliminating billions of kilowatts of wasted electricity and millions of tons of CO2 emissions each year.
The regulatory environment also provides more immediate opportunities for OEMs, especially if they partner with capable, well-resourced and experienced adapter suppliers like SunPower. Sourcing Level VI-compliant adapters facilitates market access worldwide, with the competitive edge becoming stronger if products are customized to the OEM’s exact requirements.
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I have several servers from the HP DL360 line (5-8 generations). Two power supplies are installed in each of these servers. Each server has 2 power supplies from separate circuits.
My question is, will the power draw be balanced between these two circuits, or will the server treat one power supply as “primary” and the other with a smaller power draw as “backup”?
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I’ll give an HP ProLiant-specific answer here, since the OP is asking about the HP product line.
You have the option to configure redundant power supply mode in the HP ROM-based setup utility (press the
Details of the relative efficiency of a PSU, load-balanced PSU, and high efficiency mode in a 750W power supply.
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If you go into setup (F10) you can choose a power management mode and usually there are several options including the active/passive options you suggested as well as balanced mode. I buy a blade and do it
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