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Responsible Disposal Options For Lithium-ion Batteries In Smartphone Sustainability Initiatives.
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Used Lithium Ion Batteries
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Author: Omar Velázquez-Martínez Omar Velázquez-Martínez Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1. Johanna Valio Johanna Valio Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1. Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio Scilit Markus Preprints.org Preprints.org Google Scholar 3 and Rodrigo Serna-Guerrero Rodrigo Serna-Guerrero Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, *
Lithium Cells Or Batteries Shipped For Disposal Or Recycling
Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, 0076 Aalto, Finland
Received date: August 23, 2019/Updated date: October 30, 2019/Approved date: November 1, 2019/Published date: November 5, 2019
Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are currently one of the most important energy storage devices, providing power for electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, there is a significant difference between productivity and recovery rates. At the end of their useful life, only a limited number of lithium-ion batteries are recycled, with most ending up in landfill or stored in homes. Because the latest lithium-ion battery systems are limited to components with high economic value, such as cobalt, copper, iron, and aluminum, there will be a loss of some lithium-ion battery components. With the increasing popularity of concepts such as the “circular economy” (CE), new lithium-ion battery recycling methods have been proposed that target a variety of compounds and thereby reduce the environmental impact associated with lithium-ion battery production. This review work discusses current trends and some of the most promising emerging technologies for regenerative lithium-ion batteries. Although some empirical reviews focus on descriptions of innovation processes, the current goal is to provide an assessment of innovation from a CE perspective. Therefore, the discussion is based on the ability of each technology to replace each component in LIB. The data collected showed a direct relationship between the complexity of the process and the type and purpose of the parts obtained. In fact, only processes that combine mechanical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes seem to be able to find materials suitable for the production of LIB (re). On the other hand, processes based on pyrometallurgical steps, although powerful, can only recover metal components.
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Secondary lithium-ion battery (LIB) is a renewable electrochemical energy storage device. Since their development in the 1970s, lithium-ion batteries have become an important part of the field of portable electronic devices due to their unique characteristics of high power consumption and long life [1, 2]. Compared to other battery types, such as nickel-metal hydride and lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries offer less environmental hazards, longer life, compact design, better resistance to isolation, higher temperature resistance, and higher voltage output (For example, lithium-ion batteries are 3.7V; lithium-ion batteries are 3.7V). 1.2 V for lead-acid batteries) [3, 4]. These technical advantages make them attractive for urban or industrial mobility applications [2,5,6,7] (e.g., Tesla S cars are powered by 7104 LIB batteries ). Additionally, as government and public awareness of climate change is driving the development of electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries have emerged as a promising option for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
Production. The importance of lithium-ion batteries as an energy source is reflected in frequent productivity improvements and expanding market share. In 2011, approximately 4.5 billion LIB cells were produced, an estimated increase of 43% compared to 2008 . In 2015, at least 5.6 billion lithium-ion batteries were sold worldwide . The lithium-ion battery market size is expected to grow by 10.6% from 2016 to 2024, and the market value will reach US$56 billion by 2024 . Furthermore, the electricity provided by LIBs has shown unexpected growth, such as from approximately 100, 000 MWh in 2016 to approximately 125, 000 MWh in 2017 . In particular, the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to the developers of lithium-ion batteries, demonstrating the importance of these energy storage devices in modern society.
Therefore, the use of mineral deposits has directly increased to provide the raw materials required by the lithium-ion battery market [12, 13, 14]. However, natural mineral deposits contain very high amounts of precious metals. This results in an increased environmental impact from metal emissions, which is in direct conflict with efforts to reduce climate change from electric vehicles, especially EVs. Furthermore, it is estimated that 95% of LIB produced globally is not processed domestically . Another common way of end-of-life (EoL) lithium-ion batteries is to export them to developing countries where they can be disposed of at low cost . In Europe alone, the lithium-ion battery market reported that a total of 65,500 tons of lithium-ion batteries were used between 2013 and 2014 , while only about 1900 tons were recycled during the same period. The current low uptake of lithium-ion batteries can be attributed to a variety of factors, including lax regulations, ineffective collection systems, and a lack of recycling technology for the rapidly changing lithium-ion battery waste stream.
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The difference between recycling and production currently represents an untapped source of valuable materials. In addition to representing direct economic losses and environmental risks, this gap has also led to an increasing demand for green materials relevant to their environment [15, 17, 18]. For example, an electric car battery with a capacity of approximately 78 kWh/kg produces approximately 172-196 kg of CO2.
Per kWh equivalent from raw material extraction, cell production and assembly [19, 20]. Ellingson et al. (2013)  also showed that significant environmental impacts occur during the production of cathode slurries and current collectors.
Therefore, recycling methods are a viable option to regenerate lithium-ion battery compounds in an economical manner, reducing the need for primary raw materials [22, 23, 24, 25, 26]. Recycling methods are an important component of the circular economy (CE) as they facilitate the internal movement of goods and reduce the use of resources associated with the production of primary products [26, 27, 28, 29]. In fact, the circular economy (CE) aims to mimic natural processes and produce no waste. It is worth noting that the various stages of the circular economy are highly interdependent. For example, to achieve the desired CO
Designing Batteries For Easier Recycling Could Avert A Looming E Waste Crisis
As lithium-ion batteries carry less transportation volume, their production energy should come from renewable energy sources . Clearly, CE also depends on environmental, political and financial conditions, making it a dynamic and complex phenomenon.
Geissdoerfer  proposed a conceptual approach to achieve CE through “long-term design, maintenance, repair, reuse, refurbishment, refurbishment, and recycling” of consumer products. Van Schalkwijk et al. (2017)  explained the need to define the CE concept by including thermodynamic losses in the loop.
Likewise, Figure 1 shows a recently developed CE model that takes into account material losses associated with production and material returns . In the cycle shown in Figure 1, goods move from the input stage (1) to the product termination stage (6), where the recycling process (7) takes action and restores elements of the production chain value. Unlike other types, Figure 1 shows the different recovery points related to the recovery process and its functionality. That is, the farther the recycling point is from the processing point and the system (7), the stronger the recycling process. It is known that economic and technological potential are related to market trends, which determine whether lithium-ion batteries will be processed at the composition and compound level . These drivers also indirectly define the usage of the detected device. In other words, materials at the component and compound level have a wider range of applications than materials obtained through recycling. For example, elemental lithium obtained from used lithium-ion batteries can be used in electrolyte production or as a construction additive . In fact, industrial lithium-ion battery recycling methods are inefficient and cause inevitable losses. It has also been suggested that the state of the art (SoA) is
Used Battery Disposal: Quick Guide
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